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## An Introduction to Hydraulic Design of Culverts

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil Engineers, Design & Construction Professionals |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
PG-126 |
3 |
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A. |

**Course Description:**

This course will introduce you to a nomographic approach to the hydraulic design of culverts. Culverts are hydraulic structures intended to convey, generally, stormwater and other unanticipated flows in and around the earth and other structures such as highways, bridges, and buildings. A nomographic approach is one which graphically relates relevant factors in a way that facilitates the solution of complex mathematical equations.

**Course
Outline:**

1.
GENERAL

2.
INLET
CONTROL

3.
OUTLET
CONTROL

4.
PROCEDURES FOR SELECTION OF
CULVERT SIZE

5.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF
INLET-CONTROL NOMOGRAPHS

6.
INSTRUCTION
FOR USE OF OUTLET-CONTROL NOMOGRAPHY

7.
CULVERT
CAPACITY CHARTS

**Learning
Objectives:**

Upon successful
completion of the course, the student should be able to:

- Outline the need for inlet and outlet hydraulic control of culverts.
- Employ nomographic solutions to determine headwater depth for concrete pipe culverts with inlet control.
- Delineate headwater depth parameters for oval concrete pipe culverts, long axis vertical, with inlet control.
- Determine headwater depth for circular pipe culverts with beveled ring inlet control.
- List the procedures for culvert size selection.
- Use culvert capacity charts to select appropriately sized culverts for a given situation.
- Appropriately determine when to use outlet control nomography.

**Intended Audience:**

This course is intended for Civil Engineers and other Design and Construction Professionals wanting an introduction to culvert design and hydraulics.

**Benefit for Attendee:**

This course will give Civil Engineers and other Design and Construction Professionals an introduction to the design of culverts for stormwater drainage and control.

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## An Introduction to Hydraulic Design of Sewers

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil and other Design and Construction Professionals |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
PG-218 |
3 |
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A. |

**Course Description:**

This course will introduce you to the principles of hydraulic design of sanitary sewers. You will learn how to calculate quantities of wastewater, the approach to the design of gravity and depressed sewers, required pumping capacity, hydrogen sulfide gas control, and sewer system features such as manholes, building connections, cleanouts, and pumping stations and equipment. This is an introductory course for engineers and construction professionals looking for the fundamentals that can be the foundation for further learning about the design of sewer systems.

**Course Outline:**

1. QUANTITY OF WASTEWATER

2. GRAVITY SEWER DESIGN

3. REQUIRED PUMPING CAPACITY

4. DEPRESSED SEWERS

5. HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN SEWERS

6. MANHOLES

7. BUILDING CONNECTIONS

8. CLEANOUTS

9. PUMPING STATIONS AND EQUIPMENT

**Learning Objectives:**

Upon successful completion of the course, the student should be able to:

- Evaluate the contributing population for the sewer system.
- Explain the meaning of and calculate the Average Daily Flow, Average Hourly Flowrate, Peak Diurnal Flowrate, and Extreme Peak Flowrate.
- Calculate extreme peak flowrates from average flow rates.
- Describe how to accommodate groundwater infiltration into the sewer system when designing the sewer system.
- Explain how the Manning formula is used in the design of gravity sewers.
- Discuss acceptable values for the roughness coefficient in the Manning formula.
- Select between acceptable designs in velocities for gravity sewers.
- Sort into groups the 10 parameters that need to be identified and quantified after a preliminary layout for the system has been established.
- Describe the importance of critical flow in gravity sewer design.
- Describe the velocity and flow analysis of depressed sewers.

**Benefit for Attendee:**

This course will give Civil Engineers and others an introduction to the terminology, fundamentals, and methodologies for the hydraulic design of sanitary sewer systems.

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## An Introduction to Area Drainage Systems

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil, Hydraulic, Architectural, Environmental, & Highway Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
PG-102 |
4 |
J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A. |

**(DISCLAIMER: This Course is not acceptable to NYS for CE credit for Licensed Land Surveyors or Geologists)****Course Description:**

This course will introduce you to normal requirements for the design of surface and subsurface drainage systems for residential, commercial, institutional and industrial areas. You will learn about predesign investigations, environmental considerations, hydrologic studies, hydraulic design considerations, erosion control, and Asphalt Concrete subsurface drainage. References and a bibliography are provided that will allow you to advance beyond this introductory course and begin to address area drainage issues or real projects in your company or agency.

**Course Outline:**

1. Introduction

2. Hydrology

3. Hydraulics

4. Erosion Control and Riprap Protection

5. Subsurface Drainage

**Who Should Attend:**

This course is intended for Civil Engineers and other Design and Construction Professionals wanting an introduction to the analytical and design approaches to design of urban and rural area drainage plans and hydraulic structures.

**Learning Objectives:**

Upon successful completion of the course, the student should be able to:

- Conduct field investigations needed before starting the drainage system design.
- Describe how the selection of Design storm magnitudes depend on the protection sought, the type of construction contemplated, and the consequences of storms of greater magnitude than the design storm.
- Determine the design of roadway culverts needed to accommodate rainfall conditions.
- Calculate the approach to the hydrologic analysis of an area for given rainfall conditions.
- Understand the hydraulic design of drainage channels and structures to accommodate rainfall.
- Select between materials needed for erosion control and riprap protection for drainage channels and structures.

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## Hydraulic Design of Storm Sewers with Excel

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil, Hydraulic, Highway, Environmental Engineers, and Hydrologists |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
HB-219 |
5 |
Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., P.E. |

**Course Highlights:**

Storm sewers are widely used to carry away runoff from storms, primarily in urban areas. The hydraulic design begins after the locations for the manholes for the system have been determined. Between each pair of manholes, the storm sewer will have a constant slope and diameter. The hydraulic design process results in the determination of an appropriate diameter and slope for each length of storm sewer and determines the depth of the bottom of the pipe at each manhole. The overall procedure and each step are presented and discussed in this course. Example calculations for a single length of storm sewer between two manholes will be performed and an example of calculations between successive manholes will be done using Excel.

After completing this course, you will be able to carry out the hydraulic design of storm sewers to determine diameter, slope, and depth of invert at each manhole for the length of storm sewer between two successive manholes. Also, after completing this course, you will also be able to set up an Excel program to carry out a hydraulic design for successive lengths of storm sewer.

**Course
Outline:**

1.
Example Manhole Layout and
Sectional View

2. Overview of Hydraulic Design for
Storm Sewers

3. Determination of Q_{des}, the Design Flow Rate – the
Rational Method

4. Criteria and Procedure for
Determining Diameter, Slope, and Depth

5. Flow in Partially Full Circular
Sewers

6. A Worked Example Between Two Manholes

7. Use of Excel for Calculations between
Successive Manholes

8. Summary

9. References

**Learning Objectives:**

At the conclusion of this course, the student will:

- Be able to determine the value for the runoff coefficient for a drainage area with known land use, SCS soil group, and approximate surface slope.
- Be able to find the rainfall intensity for specified storm duration and return period at a specified location if given an I-D-F table or graph for that location.
- Be able to estimate the overland flow travel time for a drainage area using the Manning Kinetic Equation.
- Be able to estimate channel flow travel time using Manning’s Open Channel Flow Equation.
- Be able to estimate peak runoff rate from a drainage area using the Rational Method.
- Be able to use Method I and Method II as outlined in this course to calculate design diameter and slope for a length of storm sewer between two successive manholes.
- Be able to determine the velocity and flow rate in a circular pipe flowing partially full if enough information is available to calculate the full pipe velocity and flow rate.
- Be able to put together the above skills to carry out the overall hydraulic design of a length of storm sewer between two successive manholes.
- Be able to use Excel to make storm sewer hydraulic design calculations for lengths of storm sewer between successive manholes.

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**Hydropower: The Largest Source of Renewable Energy**

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Electrical, Mechanical, Hydraulic, Environmental Engineers, Design & Construction Professionals |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
MR-112 |
3 | Mark P. Rossow, P.E., Ph.D. |

**Course Description:**

Hydropower is currently the largest source of renewable electricity generation in the United States, representing approximately 7% of total generation. Larger plants with water storage capability will play an important role in the future development of wind and solar power generation by providing back-up power to smooth out the fluctuations associated with these variable power sources. This course describes the technology of hydropower generation and provides estimates of hydropower availability. The advantages of generating electricity by hydropower rather than by fossil fuels are presented. Environmental impacts such as impounding water, flooding terrestrial habitats, and preventing the movement of fish and aquatic organisms, sediments, and nutrients are also described. Barriers to the expansion of hydropower, such as the high capital cost of new hydropower projects and the lengthy licensing and approval process are discussed.**Course Outline: **

1. INTRODUCTION

2. RESOURCE AVAILABILITY ESTIMATES

3. TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION

4. OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS AND GRID SERVICE POSSIBILITIES

5. DEPLOYMENT IN RENEWABLE ENERGY FUTURES SCENARIOS

6. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION AND DEPLOYMENT ISSUES

7. BARRIERS TO HIGH PENETRATION AND REPRESENTATIVE RESPONSES

8. CONCLUSIONS**Learning Objectives:**

Upon completion of this course, a course participant will be able to:

- Estimate hydropower availability.
- Describe in general terms hydropower technology.
- Compare and contrast the environmental advantages of hydropower and the generation of power from fossil fuels.
- Identify environmental and social disadvantages of hydropower.
- List manufacturing and materials requirements.
- Describe the potential for and barriers to the expansion of hydropower.

**Benefit for Attendee:**

This course will give Engineers concerned with the development of renewable energy technologies for electrical generation an introduction to the generation of electricity through hydropower.

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## Manning Equation- Open Channel Flow Using Excel

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Hydraulic, Civil, Chemical, Environmental, and Highway Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
HB-203 |
4 |
Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., P.E. |

**(DISCLAIMER: This Course is not acceptable in NYS for CE credit)**

**Course Description:**

The Manning equation is a widely used empirical equation for uniform open channel flow of water. It provides a relationship among several open channel flow parameters of interest: flow rate or average velocity, the bottom slope of the channel, the cross-sectional area of flow, wetted perimeter, and Manning roughness coefficient for the channel. Open channel flow takes place in natural channels like rivers and streams, as well as in manmade channels like those used to transport wastewater and in circular sewers flowing partially full. The main topic of this course is uniform open channel flow, in which the channel slope, water velocity, and water depth remain constant. This includes calculations with the Manning equation and the use of Excel spreadsheets for those calculations.

This course is intended for Hydrologists, Civil Engineers, Hydraulic Engineers, Highway Engineers, and Environmental Engineers. After completing this course, you will have knowledge about the basic nature of flow in open channels and the common ways of classifying open channel flow (laminar or turbulent, steady state or unsteady state, uniform or non-uniform, and critical, subcritical or supercritical). Practice in the use of the Manning equation for a variety of uniform open channel flow calculations will be gained through several worked examples.

**Learning Objectives:**

At the conclusion of this course, the student will:

- Know the differences between laminar & turbulent, steady-state & unsteady state, and uniform & non-uniform open channel flow.
- Be able to calculate the hydraulic radius for the flow of a specified depth in an open channel with specified cross-sectional shape and size.
- Be able to calculate the Reynolds Number for a specified open channel flow and determine whether the flow will be laminar or turbulent flow.
- Be able to use tables such as the examples given in this course to determine a value for the Manning roughness coefficient for flow in a manmade or natural open channel.
- Be able to use the Manning Equation to calculate volumetric flow rate, average velocity, Manning roughness coefficient, or channel bottom slope, if given adequate information about a reach of open channel flow.
- Be able to use the Manning Equation, with an iterative procedure, to calculate normal depth for specified volumetric flow rate, channel bottom slope, channel shape & size, and Manning roughness coefficient for a reach of open channel flow.
- Be able to make Manning Equation calculations in either U.S. units or S.I. units.
- Be able to calculate the Manning roughness coefficient for a natural channel based on descriptive information about the channel.
- Be able to carry out a variety of calculations for full or partially full flow under gravity in a circular pipe.

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## Rational Method Hydrological Calculations with Excel

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil, Hydraulic, Highway and Environmental Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
HB-205 |
3 |
Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., P.E. |

__(DISCLAIMER: This Course is not acceptable in NYS for CE credit)__

**Course Description:**

Calculation of peak stormwater runoff rate from a drainage area is often done with the Rational Method equation (Q =CiA). Calculations with the Rational Method equation often involve the determination of the design rainfall intensity and the time of concentration of the watershed as well. Example calculations and examples using an Excel spreadsheet for Rational Method equation calculations and for determination of the design rainfall intensity and the time of concentration of the drainage area are presented and discussed in this course. The parameters in the equations are defined with typical units for both U.S. and S.I. units.

**Learning Objectives:**

At the conclusion of this course, the student will:

- Be able to outline the parameters and their U.S. and S.I. units to be used in the Rational Method equation.
- Be able to calculate peak stormwater runoff rate with the Rational Method equation, using either U.S. or S.I. units.
- Be able to place a given soil into one of the four SCS soil groups based on its measured minimum infiltration rate.
- Be able to place a given soil into one of the four SCS soil groups based on its description.
- Be able to determine the value of the Rational Method runoff coefficient based on land use, soil group, and slope of the watershed.
- Be able to calculate the overland sheet flow travel time for a watershed using the Manning Kinematic equation.
- Be able to calculate the shallow concentrated flow travel time for a watershed using the NRCS method.
- Be able to calculate the open channel flow travel time for a watershed using the Manning equation.
- Be able to describe the form of the equation used for rainfall intensity as a function of storm duration for a specified return period.
- Be able to use an Excel spreadsheet to make the types of calculations discussed in this course.

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## Sharp-Crested Weirs for Open Channel Flow Measurement

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Hydrologists, Civil, Hydraulic, Highway, and Environmental Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
HB-223 |
3 |
Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., P.E. |

__(DISCLAIMER: This Course is not acceptable in NYS for CE credit)__

**Course
Highlights:**

A weir is basically an obstruction in an open
channel flow path. Weirs are commonly used for measurement of open channel flow
rate. A weir functions by causing water to rise above the obstruction in order
to flow over it. The height of water above the obstruction correlates with the
flow rate, so that measurement of the height of the flowing water above the top
of the weir can be used to determine the flow rate through the use of an
equation, graph or table. The top of the weir, which is used as the reference
level for the height of water flowing over it, is called the crest of the
weir. Weirs are typically classified as
being either sharp-crested or broad-crested. This course is devoted to the more
widely used sharp-crested weir. The major emphasis is on the calculations used
for flow rate over various types of sharp-crested weirs. There is also
information about guidelines for installation and use of sharp-crested weirs.

An attendee of this course will gain knowledge
about calculations and installation & measurement guidelines for
sharp-crested weirs as used to measure flow rate in open channels. Upon
completing this course, the student will be prepared to study additional open
channel flow measurement topics.

**Learning
Objectives:**

At the conclusion of this course, the student
will:

- Be able to define the standard terminology used in connection with sharp-crested weirs for open channel flow measurement.
- Be able to use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a suppressed rectangular weir for a given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Be able to use the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a contracted rectangular weir for a given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Identify the conditions required in order to use the appropriate form of the Francis equation instead of the Kindsvater-Carter equation to calculate the flow rate over a suppressed rectangular weir and over a contracted rectangular weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Identify the conditions required in order to use the Cone equation, Q = 2.49 H2.48, to calculate the flow rate over a V-notch weir for a given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Be able to use the Kindsvater-Shen equation to calculate the flow rate over a V-notch weir for notch angles other than 90o, given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Be able to check on whether required conditions are met and make calculations of flow rate over a Cipolletti weir for given head over the weir and weir dimensions.
- Be able to identify the installation and use guidelines for sharp-crested weirs for open channel flow measurement.

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## Spreadsheet Use for Partially Full Pipe Flow Calculations

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Hydrologists, Civil, Hydraulic, Highway, Environmental and Mechanical Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
HB-220 |
3 |
Harlan H. Bengtson, Ph.D., P.E. |

__(DISCLAIMER: This Course is not acceptable in NYS for CE credit)__

**Course Highlights:**

The Manning equation is used for a variety of types of uniform open channel flow, including gravity flow in pipes, the topic of this course. This course includes a review of the Manning equation, along with the presentation of equations for calculating the cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius for the flow of a specified depth in a pipe of known diameter. Numerous worked examples illustrate the use of these equations together with the Manning equation to calculate flow rate and velocity, normal depth, the minimum required pipe diameter, required pipe slope or full flow Manning roughness coefficient for partially full pipe flow.

This course is intended for Hydrologists, Civil, Hydraulic, Highway, Environmental and Mechanical Engineers. After completing this course, you will have knowledge about the equations for calculating area, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius for partially full pipe flow and equations for calculating the Manning roughness coefficient at a given depth to diameter ratio, with a known value of the Manning roughness coefficient for full pipe flow. Practice in the use of the Manning equation for a variety of partially full pipe flow calculations will be gained through several worked examples.

**Learning Objectives:**

At the conclusion of this course, the student will:

- Be able to calculate the cross-sectional area of flow, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius for less than half full flow at a given depth in a pipe of a given diameter.
- Be able to calculate the cross-sectional area of flow, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius for more than half full flow at a given depth in a pipe of a given diameter.
- Be able to use Figure 6 in the course material to determine the flow rate at a given depth of flow in a pipe of known diameter if the full pipe flow rate is known or can be calculated.
- Be able to use Figure 6 in the course material to determine the average water velocity at a given depth of flow in a pipe of known diameter if the full pipe average velocity is known or can be calculated.
- Be able to calculate the Manning roughness coefficient for a given depth of flow in a pipe of known diameter, with a known Manning roughness coefficient for full pipe flow.
- Be able to use the Manning equation to calculate the flow rate and average velocity for flow at a specified depth in a pipe of a specified diameter, with known pipe slope and full pipe Manning roughness coefficient.
- Be able to calculate the normal depth for a specified flow rate of water through a pipe of known diameter, slope, and full pipe Manning roughness coefficient.
- Be able to calculate the minimum required pipe diameter for a specified flow rate of water through a pipe of the known slope, full pipe Manning roughness coefficient and a target value for y/D.
- Be able to calculate the required pipe slope for a specified flow rate of water through a pipe of known diameter, depth of flow, and full pipe Manning roughness coefficient.
- Be able to calculate the value of the full pipe Manning roughness coefficient for a specified flow rate of water through a pipe of known diameter, slope, and depth of flow.
- Be able to carry out the calculations in the above Learning Objectives: using either U.S. units or S.I. units.
- Be able to use the spreadsheet included with this course to make partially full pipe flow calculations.

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**Sustainable Streambank and Shoreline Protection**

Instructional Method | Advanced Preparation | Program Prerequisites | Course Intended For: |
---|---|---|---|

Self-Study | None | None | Civil, Hydraulic, and Geotechnical Engineers |

Experience Level | Course ID | PDH Credits | Author |

Overview |
MR-107 |
6 | Mark P. Rossow, P.E., Ph.D. |

**Course Description:**

Streambank and shoreline protection consist of restoring and protecting banks of streams, lakes, estuaries, and excavated channels against scour and erosion. In the past, many organizations involved in water resource management have preferred to use engineered structures to provide protection. Today, engineered structures often remain as viable options, but as part of the present-day recognition of the need to promote sustainability and diversity in natural systems, engineers should seriously consider methods that are sustainable and that restore ecological functions and natural habitats. This course discusses traditional engineered structures but, in addition, discusses soil bioengineering approaches to protection. Soil bioengineering consists of using living woody plant materials as structural components to provide soil protection and reinforcement. The course discusses the attributes and limitations of both approaches and contains recommendations about which approach is most appropriate for achieving a given protection goal. Instances in which soil bioengineering can be combined with engineered structures are also discussed. Practical design considerations, construction techniques, and guidelines for the selection of appropriate materials are presented.**Course Outline:**

1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE

2. CATEGORIES OF PROTECTION

3. SELECTING STREAMBANK AND SHORELINE PROTECTION MEASURES

4. STREAMBANK PROTECTION: GENERAL

5. STREAMBANK PROTECTION: PLANNING AND SELECTING STREAM-BANK PROTECTION MEASURES

6. STREAMBANK PROTECTION: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR STREAMBANK PROTECTION

7. STREAMBANK PROTECTION: PROTECTIVE MEASURES FOR STREAMBANKS

8. SHORELINE PROTECTION: GENERAL

9. SHORELINE PROTECTION: DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SHORELINE PROTECTION

10. SHORELINE PROTECTION: PROTECTIVE MEASURES FOR SHORELINES **Learning Objectives:**

Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:

- Name planning and selecting streambank and shoreline protection measures.
- Describe design considerations.
- Distinguish among soil bioengineering approaches such as live staking, live fascines, brush layers, branch packing, live crib walls, vegetated rock gabions, joint plantings, and brush mattresses, and dormant post plantings.
- Distinguish among structural approaches such as a tree or brush revetments; log, rootwad, and boulder revetments; piling revetment with wire or geotextile fencing; jacks; rock riprap; groins; bulkheads; coconut fiber rolls; stream jetties; and barbs.
- Compare and contrast applications and effectiveness of each technique.
- List construction and installation guidelines for each technique.

**Benefit for Attendee:**

This course will give Civil, Hydraulic, and Geotechnical Engineers an introduction to concerns and issues of streambank and shoreline protection.

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